Inside our eyes, we have a natural lens. The lens bends (refracts) light rays that come into the eye to help us see. The lens should be clear. If you have a cataract, your lens has become cloudy. Dr Mack or Dr Sarfraz will be able to diagnose a Cataract with a routine eye exam.
Diabetic retinopathy is caused when high blood sugar damages blood vessels in the retina (a light-sensitive layer of cells in the back of the eye). Damaged blood vessels can swell and leak, causing blurry vision or stopping blood flow. Dr Mack and Dr Sarfraz can diagnose Diabetic Retinopathy through a routine eye exam, and the diagnosis can be made and tracked by using the Optos camera.
Read more about Diabetic Retinopathy at AAO.org.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that can cause vision loss and blindness by damaging a nerve in the back of your eye called the optic nerve. The symptoms can start so slowly that you may not notice them. The only way to find out if you have glaucoma is to get a comprehensive eye exam of the back of the eye.
Patients with a family history of Glaucoma may want an elective OCT scan of their Optic Nerve to determine risk (a fee may apply).
Read more about Glaucoma at AAO.org.
With AMD, you lose your central vision. You cannot see fine details, whether you are looking at something close or far. But your peripheral (side) vision will still be normal. The most common form of AMD is known as the “dry” type, where small yellow pieces of proteins (Drusen) form under the macula, causing worsening function. Dry AMD can turn into “wet” AMD—a severe form of this disease that can damage the vision suddenly.
Patients with a family history of AMD may want an elective OCT scan of their Macula to determine risk.
Learn more at AAO.org and print out an Amsler grid for monitoring.
Floaters look like small dots or webs in your vision. They usually occur in adults over 40, especially if you are near-sighted. Floaters, or Vitreous Detachments, are strings of collagen that float deep inside the back part of your eye.
Dry eye disease occurs when your eyes' tears aren't able to provide adequate lubrication for your eyes. Dry eyes may occur if you don't produce enough tears or if you produce poor-quality tears. Dry eyes feel uncomfortable and may sting or burn, especially if you spend alot of time on a computer. Through an eye exam, Dr Mack and Dr Sarfraz can diagnose you and provide adequate treatment. Read more about Dry eye syndrome at AAO.org.
Blepharitis is inflammation of the eyelids. They may appear red, swollen , or feel like they are burning or sore. You may have flakes or oily particles (crusts) wrapped at the base of your eyelashes too. Blepharitis is very common, especially among people who have oily skin, dandruff or rosacea.
Everyone has some bacteria on their skin. Some people, however, have more bacteria at the base of their eyelashes than other people. This can cause dandruff-like flakes to form. Also, some people have problems with oil glands in their eyelids, leading to blepharitis. Other times, blepharitis may result from an over-population of microscopic mites, called Demodex, living inside the eyelash follicles.
It is very important to keep your eyelids, skin and hair clean. This will help keep your blepharitis symptoms under control. Use baby shampoo diluted in warm water to gently scrub the eyelids/eyelashes daily when you have crusting present.
Learn more about Blepharitis at AAO.org.
Keratoconus is a degeneration of the cornea (the front part of the eye) causing progressive thinning and steepening that cause distortions and loss in vision. When advanced, it can cause pain and redness with a sudden decrease in vision.
Chronic eye rubbing can worsen the condition. Early treatment options include refractive corrections, and either soft or hard contact lenses to help minimize the irregularities of the front part of the eye. Later treatments include surgery to help flatten the steeper areas. End-stage treatment may involve corneal transplant.
This condition usually stabilizes by middle age. If not advanced, follow-up can be yearly to maintain the best vision possible. More complicated cases will need more frequent monitoring.
Optic Neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve, caused by damage to and loss of the protective sheath (myelin) surrounding this nerve. It is most commonly caused by Multiple Sclerosis, but can be caused by infections, nutritional deficiencies, neurological disorders, as well as no cause. Symptoms include blurry vision, blind spots, reduced color vision and pain upon eye movement.
Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the neuritis. Treatment could include a combination of IV and oral steroids or just monitoring the condition without prescribing medical treatment. A systemic work-up for an underlying cause should be initiated.
Prognosis varies: vision may worsen over a week before typically and then recovering by 6 months for most but not all patients. Patients should be followed after a week and then more gradually after that.
A Stye or Hordeolum is an infection of a gland lines the lid margin. The patient usually feels a swollen bump on their lid that is red and tender to the touch.
A Chalazion is a swollen bump on the eyelid. It happens when the eyelid’s oil gland clogs up. It may start as an internal hordeolum (stye). At first, you might not know you have a chalazion as there is little or no pain. But as it grows, your eyelid may get red, swollen, and sometimes tender to touch.
Read more about Styes and Chalazia at AAO.org.
If there is any question about your eye health, make an appointment with Dr Mack or Dr Sarfraz and we will help you.